In an attempt to find a universal theory of everything, scientists look for underlying code and mathematical constants that can define our universe. But if we find such a simple answer to how our environment is constructed, then it suggests that the universe is designed, implying creation. Some might take that to mean divine creation, while others like myself see at as evidence for our world being part of a simulation.

Here’s the abstract for Constraints on the Universe as a Numerical Simulation:

Observable consequences of the hypothesis that the observed universe is a numerical simulation performed on a cubic space-time lattice or grid are explored. The simulation scenario is first motivated by extrapolating current trends in computational resource requirements for lattice QCD into the future. Using the historical development of lattice gauge theory technology as a guide, we assume that our universe is an early numerical simulation with unimproved Wilson fermion discretization and investigate potentially-observable consequences. Among the observables that are considered are the muon g-2 and the current differences between determinations of alpha, but the most stringent bound on the inverse lattice spacing of the universe, b^(-1) >~ 10^(11) GeV, is derived from the high-energy cut off of the cosmic ray spectrum. The numerical simulation scenario could reveal itself in the distributions of the highest energy cosmic rays exhibiting a degree of rotational symmetry breaking that reflects the structure of the underlying lattice.

The authors point out that simulations already use this lattice in a computer environment, so all that is a building block in the direction of a full simulation:

With the current developments in HPC and in algorithms it is now possible to simulate Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), the fundamental force in nature that gives rise to the strong nuclear force among protons and neutrons, and to nuclei and their interactions. These simulations are currently performed in femto-sized universes where the space-time continuum is replaced by a lattice, whose spatial and temporal sizes are of the order of several femto-meters or fermis (1 fm = 1015 m), and whose lattice spacings (discretization or pixelation) are fractions of fermis. This endeavor, generically referred to as lattice gauge theory, or more speciﬁcally lattice QCD, is currently leading to new insights into the nature of matter.

So, they have created a good theory. In the future, this specific lattice concept could be a feature of simulations. Which means there might be tests that prove we are in a simulation. The math is very complex, but for now all we need to know is that we don’t have the technology (although, presumably, one day we will…):

The spectrum of the highest energy cosmic rays provides the most stringent constraint that we have found on the lattice spacing of a universe simulation, but precision measurements, particularly the muon g 2, are

within a few orders of magnitude of being sensitive to the chiral symmetry breaking aspects of a simulationemploying the unimproved Wilson lattice action.